Immunological mechanisms of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration
Nizhegorodova D.B., Levkovskaya A.N., Zafranskaya M.M.
International Sakharov Environmental Institute of Belarusian State University, Minsk, Republic of Belarus
Belarusian Medical Academy of Post-Graduate Education, Minsk, Republic of Belarus
Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by multifactorial etiology resulting from a sporadic combination of endogenous (genetic predisposition, old age) and external environmental factors (infectious agents, technological factors of civilization, stress, lifestyle) in a particular individual and accompanied by an irreversible neuron death process. Despite differences in etiology and pathogenesis similar features of immunological and neuropathological processes in neurodegenerative diseases have been identified. Numerous data suggest that chronic neuroinflammation assisted by cellular and humoral components of the innate and adaptive immune response is the main trigger process of neurodegeneration. In this regard, understanding and controlling the interaction between the immune and nervous systems can be a key point in preventing the development, diagnosis and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In this article the mechanisms of the neuroinflammation and impaired immunoprivilege of the central nervous system have been detailed, the role of innate and adaptive factors of the immune system in the development of neurodegenerative processes has been demonstrated, and neuroinflammatory biomarkers that can be used not only to determine the degree of neurodegeneration, but also to predict the mechanisms of its development have been suggested.